Steps in Research

 Steps in research

Since social research is systematic research, each task can only be done in a phased manner. As a result, it is possible to understand the problem, gain theoretical knowledge related to it, determine the objective, formulate hypotheses, adopt data collection methods and then generalize the general rules after analysis and presentation. This process can lead to the search for the causes of the problem. Social research is called scientific research because it is done in a phased and systematic way.

An in-depth analysis of the problem can be done through phased research. By discovering the causal relationship of social phenomena, a certain kind of theoretical framework can be prepared and theoretical beliefs can be tested. Studies were done in this way to help to generalize the laws of the nature of events. Each phase is interrelated and interdependent. Which has to be presented in order. Social research is also a sensitive, cumbersome, and time-consuming task. However, if the research work is carried out in a phased, systematic, patient, and optimistic manner, the research will become logical, fruitful, and simple. The various steps to be taken in social research work can be given as follows.

1.      Identifying the Problem

The first step in the research is to identify the problem. The first thing to do is to choose a topic from among many problems or topics. The fact that research is being done for a purpose has a profound effect on the choice of subject. The problem or subject to be studied should be relevant, controllable, and verifiable in social life.

Recognition of the purpose for which the research is conducted also influences the identification of the problem. Appropriate topics can be chosen to fulfill a specific objective, such as obtaining an academic degree, understanding the impact of a problem, confirming a theory, or examining the feasibility and effectiveness of a plan. Therefore, the specific topic of the problem or research topic is chosen. So after a very judicious long effort, there are a few sources to make a choice that can be used to get the problem or the title of the study to have a greater or greater impact on the researcher’s personal interest in society and a matter of public concern. In which

1.      Recent Phenomena and Trend

2.      Experience

3.      Literature Review

4.      Experiences of Expert

5.      Consultations

6.      Social System

7.      Research

Thus, using different resources, one has to choose a certain effective problem from many problems. There are basically three aspects to the problem selection process. In which (1) to choose the subject under which genre, (2) to research at which level, large and small, and (3) to identify certain effective subjects among them.

Finally, identifying the problem concerning social research is a very important and effective task. Problems here refer to the topics being researched. Failure to choose a suitable topic can reduce the effectiveness of research and make it difficult to reach a definite conclusion. Here are some things to keep in mind when choosing a research topic. Which should be the subject?

a)      The title of the problem or study should be the subject of the personal interest of the researcher.

b)       Choose a subject that has a greater or greater impact on society and matters of public concern.

c)       The topic should be new, useful, and curious.

d)      There should be a subject that can be completed at a certain time.

e)      The problem should not have a clear ambiguous meaning and the relationship between two or more variables should be able to find the causal relationship.

f)       The title should be short and simple.

g)       The problem should be of the type that can be tested by the scientific method (Empirical Method).

h)       The problem should be ethically neutral.

i)         The problem should be original and useful to society.

j)        When choosing a research topic, one should study the previously studied topics in depth.

k)       When choosing a research problem, it is necessary to study the required amount of reference literature and consult with the experts of the related subject.

l)        Special interest should be given to the researcher’s interest, resources, and availability of resources. The subject matter of the research should be clear and conclusive.

m)     Research subjects should be chosen keeping in view the subtle and specific subject or field.

n)      Each limitation should be taken into consideration while choosing the research topic.

    2.      Statement of the Problem

After choosing a suitable topic or problem, that topic should be explained and analyzed. It is necessary to make a logical and factual analysis that the subject being studied can be problematic and fruitful. The nature and social nature of the chosen problem, the level and level of its impact on the society should be analyzed and the chosen problem should be explained and analyzed.

If the proposed research can be interpreted and analyzed at each level of the subject, then naturally the research can be done by reaching the depth of the subject. Analytical explanations with the definition and introduction of the problem are given under this. Statistical facts obtained from the review of the bibliography which is related to the definition and interpretation of the proposed topic, if he is presented here.

3.      Review of Related Literature

Each type is considered. Even then, it is not a review of various and complex forms in social research, but rather a review of books, articles, and essays, and only a review of all kinds of texts related to the subject of reference literature and proposed research.

In the context of social research, a review of references refers to the review of textbooks which include the findings, achievements, etc. of the theory report related to the subject being researched. From which the problem can be identified, effective location, effective research method can be chosen. The researcher makes the findings of the latest research related to the same subject thematic. From this, the research being done can be effective and the findings of your research can be comparatively evaluated. According to Gay, the contextual literary review involves the systematic identification of a specific research topic or problem, and the analysis of specific and definite report information. problem) “In this regard, Consuelo G. Sevilla et al say that the review of reference literature is the main process that shows you the way about the previous theory (The Review of related literature is the major process that leads you to past theory). Knowledge of theoretical beliefs, findings of the research, and research methods and methods.

Sources of reference in the context of research can be mentioned as follows. As per –

1) Books: Comprehensive Dictionary, Thematic Dictionary, Annual Publication Report, Original Textbook, Reference Textbook, etc.

2) Report: Government and non-government reports such as Planning Commission, Central Statistics Department, government reports, reports of various organizations, workshop reports, findings of seminars, etc.

3) Newspapers (Journal): Newspapers of various natures, daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, yearly, etc.

4) Research-Oriented Dissertation: Research-oriented dissertations for any academic degree at the university level, such as doctoral and post-graduate dissertations.

5) Use of means of communication: In addition to writing newspaper articles, radio, TV programs, review of information on the Internet, etc. These different types of sources are broadly placed under the primary source of primary source data and the secondary source as an auxiliary source for the consideration of the actual level of data. 

When studying pre-literature in research, only reliable sources should be used as study material. New resources related to research topics should be added more. For this, first of all, proper information should be taken about where such study materials can be obtained.

4.      Determination of Objectives

Among the various stages of social research, the determination of objectives is usually associated with the choice of subject. However, the contextual literary review helps to make the purpose of research specific, useful and controlled. So what are the aspects related to research in a particular subject and what is the expected benefit? A definite objective is chosen to keep in mind the context. Because of this, research can be definite and limited. This can limit the potential for deception and greater freedom in research. Which is very necessary for research work? The following conditions need to be combined in determining the purpose of the research. According to

1. The purpose should be short, simple, and clear.

2. Must be related to the main topic.

3. Research can show the relationship between variables.

4. Must be effective.

5. The immediate problem should be added.

6. Must be within reach of resources and means.

7. The scientific method should be used.

5.      Formulation of Hypothesis

Here it is considered as one of the various stages of research and only its context is mentioned. In general, hypotheses are constructed and raised in every research. Hypothesis, In short, the hypothesis is the predictive answer to various problems raised in the context of research. The hypothesis is the prediction of the relationship between the variables involved in the context of research. For example, Magar culture is influenced by Hinduization. This is a hypothesis. Therefore, the preconceived notion between Hinduization and Magar culture is a hypothesis. It can also be called a predictable answer to research findings.

By creating hypotheses, the researcher can carry out research work without deviating from his objective. Information is collected and analyzed for hypothesis testing. Anything true or false can be proved after hypothesis testing. If it is true, then it can take the form of theory by gaining clear conceptual recognition.

Such hypotheses may not be contrived but may be based on theories, experiences, and findings of various reports which should be tested. Null hypotheses are often tested, but in some cases, they are not. In this case, an alternative hypothesis is constructed. In the absence of a working hypothesis test, this type of hypothesis is tested and a conclusion is reached. Therefore, we can call the hypothetical conclusion of the research hypothesis. In this context, there is a common belief that research is not independent when constructing hypotheses, while some other experts have concluded that it is necessary because hypotheses serve to guide research.

6.      Formulation of Research Design

Detailed analytical information on the research framework can be found in the next research framework title. The research framework is a broad concept in the field of research that deals with the question of what, how, why, when, and where a whole body of research is concerned and builds a specific framework accordingly. Based on which research work can be done. Basically, the structure of the research clarifies the relevance of the research topic, appropriate conceptual clarification, incorporation of specific facts, and method of analysis. The research framework is therefore a pre-estimated and proposed draft of a preliminary action plan on what to do and how to complete the research as a whole. Based on this, research work is done.

 Depending on the nature of the research, the purpose, and the proposed achievement, research can be done in different formats. For example, if the subject of research is descriptive then descriptive design, if it is related to the exploration of some new facts then exploratory design, if it is research related to evaluation and testing of true facts then experimental design if research related to problem diagnosis is diagnostic. (Diagnosis design) etc. are used.

Here are some facts to understand that can be summarized as follows. In which

1. The specific subject being researched requires a specific research framework.

2. Each research model has its own set of research methods and procedures.

3. Each research framework has its own set of values ​​and objectives.

4. Therefore, the specified format should be followed according to the subject and purpose of the research.

5. Structural beliefs, processes, and methods should be adopted.

7.      Sampling Design

In the context of social research, it is often considered impractical from the point of view of resources, means, and time to conduct research covering the entire field related to research. Therefore, one has to choose some representative units from the total population or Universe. The selection process here is called sample selection. The units selected are the sample units.

In social research, first, the overall population is identified and then a certain representative unit is selected by following various effective sample selection methods. Representative units are selected by analyzing the totality based on their characteristics. Therefore the following aspects should be emphasized while choosing the sample. In which-

1.   Identification of Universe and selection of Representative sample Unit

2.   Size of the Sample

3.   Adequate Sample Unit

4.   Reduction of Sampling Error

5.   Appropriate Method

6.   Applied Scientific Procedure

Units of diversity and heterogeneity in some social research topics should be studied, and work should be carried out only after evaluating the effectiveness of the sample selection method in the case of the small population (Universe) and totality.

8.      Data Collection

This stage of data collection can be considered very important in social research. Information or statistics are how research is achieved. Therefore, emphasis should be laid on the collection of factual information. In this context, there should be a combination of practical and scientific nature between the nature of the research topic, research methods, and data collection methods. Effective and accurate information can be collected only if special research methods are used on specific research topics. From this, the conclusion can be generalized.

In order to make the research work purposeful, data should be collected from primary and secondary sources as required. Researchers should use various effective techniques to collect data. There are generally two types of statistics. The first is numerical facts, which can be collected as numerical facts. Similarly, qualitative data has to be collected depending on the nature of research on some issues related to social life. The researcher should analyze the information or facts through qualitative analysis by giving the specified value to the data of such nature. To bring reliability in data collection, it is equally necessary for the researcher himself to be independent, determined, and confident.

9.      Data Analysis

The act of presenting, comparing, and tabulating scattered facts or information in a meaningful and systematic way is called fact analysis. In which the hypothesis test, the establishment of the relationship between the variables, the task of finding the relevance of the information obtained according to the purpose is done through statistical analysis. This stage of research is even more important in the sense that it is a conclusive stage. The usefulness and result of the research are clarified at this stage.

The use of different charts should also be used to bring effectiveness in the analysis by organizing the facts. When looking for a relationship between variables, the nature of the causal relationship should also be clarified. The hypothesis is tested using various experimental methods. The results obtained from this are discussed as required qualitative analysis and its causes and consequences. Various explanations have to be given as to why such a result was seen. Therefore, as important as data collection is, it is important to have an effective analysis of the data collected. At this stage, the data in various situations are made to speak through statistical analysis.

10.  Generalization

Once the data is collected, we analyze it. Only then can we conclude that this conclusion drawn from the research is valid and authentic. To confirm this, rules and bylaws are developed and the findings of that particular study are declared valid over the overall culture or problem. Similarly, establishing the belief that the representative findings of all problems are the findings of existing studies is called generalization. Generalization is the conclusive interpretation of research. In which the development, modification, and rejection of the theory are done based on the results of the hypothesis test.

 In some social studies, hypotheses are not raised. However, the findings are generalized based on qualitative analysis. In some cases, the results obtained after the hypothesis test have been generalized by clarifying the process of logical rules that can be applied more broadly. The more generalized the findings, the more authentic the research.

As easy as it is to generalize the findings in physics. It is just as difficult in the social sciences. Due to the nature of the social problem and the diversity in the factors that affect it, the conditions under which social change affects the subject of research, the variability in human attitudes and psychology, the diversity within the social system, etc., make it difficult to generalize conclusions. Research is done based on culture to be a certain society and culture. The conclusion can be generalized in the totality of the society and culture or the subject of research carrying the same tendency. Therefore, according to the findings of social research, internal validity is higher and external validity is lower.

 11.  Report writing

Detailed information about report writing can be obtained from the report writing title. The last step of social research is report writing. Report writing is a report prepared by expressing the findings of the overall research work in a systematic, concise, logical, and contextual manner. The findings of the time research are organized and prepared in a phased manner in a single report.