Introduction and Forms of Plagiarism in Research



Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s work or concepts as your own, with or whiles, not their consent, by incorporating it into your work without full acknowledgment. All published and unpublished material, whether or not in the manuscript, written or electronic type, is covered below this definition. Plagiarism is also intentional or reckless, or unintentional. Below the rules for examinations, intentional or reckless plagiarism could be a disciplinary offense.

Forms of plagiarism

Verbatim (word for word) quotation without clear acknowledgment Quotations should always be known as such by the use of either quotation marks or indentation, and with full referencing of the sources cited. It should always be apparent to the reader that components are your own independent work and wherever you have got drawn on someone else’s concepts and language.

Cutting and pasting from the internet while not clear acknowledgment Information derived from the internet should be adequately documented and enclosed within the listing. It’s necessary to gauge carefully all material found on the internet because it is less likely to possess been through an equivalent method of learned review as printed sources.


Paraphrasing the work of others by altering a number of words and dynamical their order, or by closely following the structure of their argument is plagiarism if you are doing not offer due acknowledgment to the author whose work you’re using.

A passing reference to the first author in your own text might not be enough; you need to make sure that you are doing not create the misleading impression that the paraphrased expression or the sequence of concepts are entirely your own. It’s higher to write down a quick outline of the author’s overall argument in your own words, indicating that you just do this, then paraphrase explicit sections of his or her writing. This can make sure you have a genuine grasp of the argument and can avoid the issue of paraphrasing without plagiarizing.

Inaccurate citation

It is necessary to cite properly, in line with the conventions of your discipline. Likewise as listing your sources (i.e. during a bibliography), you need to indicate, using a footnote or an in-text reference, wherever a quoted passage comes from. Additionally, you ought to not include something in your references or listing that you just haven’t really consulted. If you can’t gain access to a primary source you need to create it clear in your citation that your data of the work has been derived from a secondary text (for example, Bradshaw, D. Title of Book, mentioned in Wilson, E., Title of Book (London, 2004), p. 189).

Failure to acknowledge the assistance

You must clearly acknowledge all help that has contributed to the assembly of your work, like a recommendation from a fellow students, laboratory technicians, and other external sources. This needn’t apply to the help provided by your tutor or supervisor, or to ordinary proofreading, however, it’s necessary to acknowledge alternative guidance that ends up in substantive changes of content or approach.

Use of material written by skilled agencies or other persons

You should neither create use of skilled agencies in the production of your work nor submit material that has been written for you even with the consent of the one that has written it. It’s important to your intellectual training and development that you just ought to undertake the research process unaided. According to University Discipline, all members of the University are prohibited from providing the material that might be submitted in an examination by students at this University or elsewhere.


You must not submit work for assessment that you just have already submitted (partially or in full), either for your current course or for another qualification of this, or the other, university, unless this is often specifically provided for in the special rules for your course. Wherever earlier work by you is citable, i.e. it’s already been published, you need to reference it clearly. Identical items of labor submitted concurrently also will be thought of to be auto-plagiarism.

Why does plagiarism matter?

Plagiarism could be a breach of academic integrity. It’s a principle of intellectual honesty that each one member of the tutorial community ought to acknowledge their debt to the originators of the concepts, words, and knowledge that type the idea for his or her own work. Passing off another’s work as your own isn’t solely a poor scholarship, however also implies that you have got didn’t complete the learning method. Plagiarism is unethical and might have serious consequences for your future career; it also undermines the standards of your establishment and of the degrees it problems.

Why must you avoid plagiarism?

There are several reasons to avoid plagiarism. You have got return to university to find out to understand and speak your own mind, not simply to breed the opinions of others – a minimum of not without attribution. Initially, it’s going to appear very difficult to develop your own views, and you’ll most likely end up paraphrasing the writings of others as you arrange to perceive and assimilate their arguments. But it’s necessary that you just learn to develop your own voice. You’re not essentially expected to become a creative thinker; however, you’re expected to be an independent one – by learning to assess critically the work of others, weigh up differing arguments and draw your own conclusions. Students who plagiarize undermine the attribute of academic scholarship whereas avoiding an important part of the learning method.

You should avoid plagiarism as a result of you be after to produce work of the very best quality. Once you have got grasped the principles of source use and citation, you ought to notice it comparatively easy to steer further from plagiarism. Moreover, you’ll reap the extra edges of enhancements to each the lucidity and quality of your writing. It’s necessary to understand that mastery of the techniques of educational writing isn’t simply a sensible ability, however, one that lends each believability and authority to your work, and demonstrates your commitment to the principle of intellectual honesty in scholarship.

What happens if you’re thought to have plagiarized?

The University regards plagiarism in examinations as a significant matter. Cases are investigated and penalties could vary from deduction of marks to expulsion from the University, depending on the seriousness of the occurrence. Although plagiarism is unintended, it may result in a very penalty. The types of plagiarism listed higher than are all doubtless disciplinary offenses within the context of formal assessment necessities.

The regulations relating to conduct in examinations apply equally to the ‘submission and assessment of a thesis, dissertation, essay, or alternative work not undertaken in formal examination conditions however that counts towards or constitutes the work for a degree or alternative academic award’. Also, this includes the transfer and confirmation of standing exercises undertaken by graduate students. Cases of suspected plagiarism in assessed work are investigated beneath the disciplinary regulations regarding conduct in examinations. Intentional plagiarism in this context means you understood that you just were breaching the regulations and did therefore aiming to gain an advantage in the examination. Reckless, during this context, means you understood or may be expected to possess understood (even if you probably did not specifically contemplate it) that your work may breach the laws; however, you took no action to avoid doing, therefore. Intentional or reckless plagiarism could incur severe penalties, as well as the failure of your degree or expulsion from the university.

If plagiarism is suspected and in a very piece of labor submitted for assessment in an examination, the matter is brought up by the Proctors. They’ll completely investigate the claim and decision the coed involved for the interview. If at this time there’s no proof of a breach of the regulations, no disciplinary action is taken though there should still be a tutorial penalty. However, if it’s concluded that a breach of the laws could have occurred, the Proctors can refer the case to the coed Disciplinary Panel.

If you’re suspected of plagiarism your faculty Secretary/Academic Administrator and subject tutor can support you through the method and prepare for a member of Congregation to accompany you to all or any hearings. They’ll be able to advise you on what to expect throughout the investigation and the way best to create your case.

Does this mean that I shouldn’t use the work of other authors?

On the contrary, it’s very important that you just situate your writing within the intellectual debates of your discipline. Academic essays nearly always involve the employment and discussion of material written by others, and, with due acknowledgment and correct referencing, this is often clearly distinguishable from plagiarism. The data in your discipline has developed cumulatively as a result of years of research, innovation, and discussion. You wish to present credit to the authors of the ideas and observations you cite. Not only wills this accord recognition to their work, but it also helps you to strengthen your argument by making clear the premise that you create it. Moreover, smart citation follow offers your reader the chance to follow up on your references, or check the validity of your interpretation.

Does each statement in my essay need to be secured with references?

You may feel that as well as the citation for each purpose you create can interrupt the flow of your essay and make it looks terribly old-hat. A minimum of at the start, this could typically be inevitable. However, by using smart citation follow from the beginning, you may learn to avoid errors like shut paraphrasing or inadequately documented quotation. It’s vital to know the explanations behind the necessity for transparency of supply use.

All academic texts, even student essays are multi-voiced, which suggests they’re full of references to alternative texts. instead of trying to synthesize these voices into one narrative account, you ought to build it clear whose interpretation of the argument you’re using at anybody time – whose ‘voice’ is speaking.

If you’re well indebted to a selected argument within the formulation of your own, you ought to build this clear each in footnotes and within the body of your text in keeping with the united conventions of the discipline, before going on to explain however your own views develop or diverge from this influence.

On the other hand, it’s not necessary to present references for facts that are general knowledge in your discipline. If you’re unsure of whether or not one thing is considered to be general knowledge or not, it’s safer to cite it anyway and look for clarification. you are doing got to document facts that don’t seem to be typically known and concepts that are interpretations of facts.

Does this only matter in exams?

Although plagiarism in weekly essays doesn’t represent a University disciplinary offense, it should well result in faculty disciplinary measures. Persistent academic under-performance will even lead to your being sent down from the University. Though tutorial essays historically don’t need the total scholarly equipment of footnotes and references, it’s still necessary to acknowledge your sources and demonstrate the event of your argument, typically by an in-text reference. Several tutors can raise that you just do use a proper citation style ahead of time, and you may realize that this is often smart preparation for a later project and dissertation work. In any case, your work can profit significantly if you adopt good scholarly habits from the beginning, together with the techniques of critical thinking and writing described higher than.

As junior members of the academic community, students got to find out how to browse academic literature and the way to write it down in a very style appropriate to their discipline. This doesn’t mean that you just should become masters of jargon and obfuscation, but the method is equivalent to learning a new language. It’s necessary not solely to find out new terminology; however, sensible study skills and alternative techniques can assist you to find out effectively.

Developing these skills throughout it slow at university won’t only assist you to produce higher work, dissertations, comes and exam papers, however, can lay the intellectual foundations for your future career. even if you’ve got no intention of turning into an academic, being able to analyze proof, exercise vital judgment, and write clearly and persuasively are skills that will serve you for all times, and that any leader can value.

Borrowing essays from different students to adapt and submit as your own is plagiarism and can develop none of those necessary skills, holding back your academic development. Students who lend essays for this purpose do their peers no favors.

Unintentional plagiarism

Not all cases of plagiarism arise from a deliberate intention to cheat. Generally, students might omit to require down citation details once taking notes, or they’ll be genuinely ignorant of referencing conventions. However, these excuses provide no certain protection against a charge of plagiarism. Even in cases wherever plagiarism is found to possess been neither intentional nor reckless, there should still be an academic penalty for poor practice.

It is your responsibility to find out the prevailing referencing conventions in your discipline, to require adequate notes, and to avoid shut paraphrasing. If you’re offered induction sessions on plagiarism and study skills, you must attend. At the side of the recommendation contained in your subject handbook, these can assist you to learn the way to avoid common errors. If you’re undertaking a project or dissertation you must make sure that you’ve got data on plagiarism and collusion. If ever unsure regarding referencing, paraphrasing or plagiarism, you’ve got only to raise your tutor.

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