Hypothesis

 

Hypothesis

The hypothesis is a premonition of an event that each person uses in their life process. What to do tomorrow how to do the person also uses imagination in life. In addition, hypotheses are developed to advance research in a systematic and controlled manner. The construction of hypotheses is considered important among the various stages of social research. In order to conduct scientific study and research of social phenomena, hypotheses are formulated and the findings of the research are generalized by testing them. The possible relationship between the various variables in the research you are about to do is predicted, so it can be called a hypothesis. Such assumptions are made on the basis of personal experience, theoretical reviews, and the study of reference literature.

When the researcher chooses the subject of the study, he also anticipates and anticipates the return to be obtained from that study. The construction of hypotheses cannot be done without understanding and study. For this, the study of the deepest reference literature is necessary. Only then is the hypothesis formulation done. Therefore, the hypothesis is meaningful, causal, and generally confirmed. In all cases the hypothesis may not be confirmed, i.e. the hypothesis is proved to be true or false after the study. For example, some hypotheses can be given as follows.

(1) People with higher economic status have higher rates of higher education than people with weaker economic status.

(2) There are more women enrolled in school than men. 

(3) Gurung culture has not been affected by westernization. (4) Profit determines the investment etc.

Defining Hypothesis (Gay) (1976) – Hypothesis is a tentative explanation for certain behaviors, phenomena, or events that have occurred or will occur.’ The hypothesis is the experimental analysis of events, behaviors, or events that occur or are about to occur. This definition emphasizes the relationship between the variables associated with the research problem. Researchers speculate about social behaviors that exist or may occur. That is called a hypothesis.

 E.N. Karlinger’s views on hypotheses are as follows “A hypothesis is a conjectural statement between two or more variables.” In this definition, a hypothetical statement or description between two or more variables is called a hypothesis.

According to MC Guigan -“A hypothesis is a testable statement of a potential relationship between two or more variables.” According to this definition, a hypothesis is a probable testable statement between two or more variables.

In conclusion, the hypothesis refers to the possible relationship between the various variables that the researcher may be involved in a subject related to his or her research prior to the research work. It provides the researcher with a specific path to research. Hypotheses are not true and false in them but can be proved true or false after testing. At each stage of the research, the hypothesis helps the researcher to reach the destination. The hypothesis is therefore a prediction of the problem that the researcher is about to investigate. The whole research work is done on the basis of this estimate.

B) Characteristics of Good Hypothesis

A good hypothesis can only be made when events are logically interpreted from the hypothesis raised. Whether the event exists as imagined or could exist at any time. Therefore, a good hypothesis can show the relationship between logical variables and is definite and meaningful. The variables involved in constructing the hypothesis should be measurable and simple. The cause-effect relationship between variables needs to be expressed or tested. The characteristics of a good hypothesis can be presented as follows.

 1. The hypothesis must be testable.

2. The hypothesis should be conceptually clear.

3. The hypothesis should be sufficient to answer the problem.

4. The simple answer is to build a hypothesis.

5. The hypothesis should be related to the existing scientific method and technology, i.e. it should be able to be tested by such technology.

6. The hypothesis should be regionally simple or general, confusing, and ambiguous.

7. The hypothesis should be constructed from the researcher’s opinion, experience, and review of various reference literary texts.

8. Hypothesis, even if it is an imaginary belief, should be related to theory. It also needs to be specific.

9. The socio-cultural characteristics of the society should be taken as the basis while constructing the hypothesis.

10. The choice of the hypothesis should be related to the topic being researched.

11. Statistics should be available.

12. When creating a hypothesis, one should also look at the less expensive and economical ones.

Creating a hypothesis is a complex and thought-provoking task. Failure to formulate the right hypothesis negatively affects the research as a whole. In a changing society, social events keep changing. This makes it difficult to create hypotheses. Differences in theory and practice and in the case of discrepancies, and if the sources studied while studying the reference literature are flawed in themselves, not only will there be difficulties in constructing the hypothesis but the correct hypothesis will not be formed. If the hypothesis maker does not have knowledge of theory, it is difficult to formulate a hypothesis even if he does not have theoretical knowledge on the subject and is unfamiliar with the process of scientific research. The hypothesis must be true or close to the truth. But it should not be assumed that the research should be concluded according to the hypothesis.

In the field of social research, the formation of hypotheses helps to reach conclusions by collecting, classifying, and analyzing the necessary facts and is more relevant to the subject of research. The testable hypothesis must be chosen. The use of hypotheses helps to make better use of resources, means, and time in research work.

C) Types of Hypothesis

There is no uniformity in the classification of hypotheses. However, the hypotheses raised and used in the context of social research can be summarized as follows. As per –

1. Null Hypothesis

2. Research Hypothesis

3. Alternative Hypothesis

4. Causal Hypothesis

5. Experimental Hypothesis

1) Null Hypothesis

Research predicts a possible relationship between variables, which we call hypothesis. In this context, the hypothesis that the similarities between the variables being tested and the difference or difference between them are zero is called the null hypothesis. H. refers to it in the context of hypothesis testing. The relationship between the two types of variables is looked at by comparing the mean value that the researcher hypothesized and the value from the actual test. In which the difference of the relationship is assumed to be zero. According to R. Fisher, the probable rejection of the statement that it is true is called a futile hypothesis which is actually true. (Null hypothesis is the hypothesis which is tested for the possible rejection under the assumption that is true)’.

When the hypothesis is zero during research. Or if it is concluded that there is no relation between the two variables, the fruitless hypothesis is considered accepted. An alternative hypothesis is used if the failed hypothesis is not accepted, such as H = 0 (zero). Research has shown that this type of hypothesis is tested in almost all social disciplines. In summary, there is no correlation between the variables raised and tested in the research. For example, when testing the zero hypotheses that the level of education of women is not equal to that of men, if the level of education is different in both, i.e. higher in men, then this test shows that the fruitless hypothesis is accepted. If this is rejected or if the level of education of women is higher than the alternative hypothesis i.e. the hypothesis that the level of education of women is higher than the level of education of men is tested.

2) Research Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a hypothesis designed to provide possible answers to questions raised in the research. Such hypotheses are developed based on established theoretical beliefs. Such hypotheses are especially tested in theory. This helps in the development of theoretical beliefs and the strengthening of theories. For example, the hypothesis that smoking causes cancer in humans can be tested with this hypothesis. In this regard, Mc Nemar says – hypotheses are based on theory, determined by observation and logical basis. (The research hypothesis set upon the basis of theory or prior observation or on the logical ground) The main purpose of this research hypothesis is to develop and test the theory.

3) Alternative Hypothesis

More than one alternative hypothesis is raised in the context of research. Alternative hypotheses are usually used when a futile hypothesis is rejected. In this hypothesis, the hypothesis is tested to show whether the relationship between the variables is more or less, and again the zero hypothesis is tested. In case the null hypothesis is accepted again, the alternative hypothesis cannot be accepted. Alternative hypotheses are used to show the fact that there is a difference between men and women in the way they adopt new fashions. In research, H refers to alternative research. The relationship between the alternative hypothesis and the null (zero) can be seen as follows. In which –

H: (Mean) = 80 (Null hypothesis)

H:1 (Mean) # 80 (Alternative hypothesis)

HD (Mean)> or <80

Here, H refers to the futile hypothesis, H, to the alternative hypothesis, 2 to the median. An alternative hypothesis cannot be accepted if zero hypotheses are accepted. Speaking as mentioned above, if the mean of Ho is accepted as 80, then H is not accepted. If Ho is rejected, H indicates a condition greater than or equal to 80.

4) Casual Hypothesis

A hypothesis developed according to the belief that there are causes behind any event or situation and should be explored is called a causal hypothesis. Such hypotheses are developed in relation to finding the causes of social problems, events, and incidents. For example, the selfish tendency of political leadership has created instability in the country. There is a lot of research to be done to test this hypothesis. This type of hypothesis is used in relation to causal effects analysis.

 5) Experimental Hypothesis

In experimental hypotheses, hypotheses are developed based on two groups for testing. As there are two villages, the experimental hypothesis is raised to test whether the level of income generation and public awareness is different between the people who have reached the road and the people who have not reached the village.

Among the various types of social research, this type of hypothesis is tested in experimental research. Some other hypotheses are also used in the context of social research. Descriptive Hypothesis in which the characteristics of an object, person, situation, event, and organization are described and tested accordingly. For example, students studying forestry have less unemployment than students studying law. Similarly, the rational hypothesis seeks to test the positive and negative relationship between two variables. For example, lower-class people have more children than upper-class people. Similarly, the analytical hypothesis examines the analytical situation between the proposed test variables in the research. For example, religion, beliefs, and education have an impact on population growth. Therefore, the effect of changes in the variables affecting the population is considered under this heading. Similarly, the statistical hypothesis looks at the degree of correlation between variables. The relationship between the two variables is obtained as +, – or (0, what is obtained. The conclusion is drawn on the basis of this.

D) Sources of Hypothesis

The hypothesis is not just the discretion of the researcher. Instead, the specified processes are completed when constructing the hypothesis. The hypothesis is based on a number of sources. Each type of hypothesis is related to the research topic. In this context, the sources of good ideas can be mentioned as follows.

1) Intuition and Personal Experience of a Researcher

The researcher himself can be an important source for constructing a hypothesis that he can draw a conclusion from the experience and experiences he has gained in life. He has used many ideas. Many experiences are shared. Lessons are learned from many successes and failures. A researcher’s long experience, logical ability, research-oriented personality and temperament, etc. determine what kinds of hypotheses are appropriate for a researcher. In some cases, research has become a document, a museum, and a library.

2) Theory

Appropriate, testable, and logical hypotheses can be formulated on the basis of established principles and by-laws of theory construction. Many hypotheses can be made with the process of formulating a theory. For example, the development of various hypotheses based on the belief that the high suicide rate depends on the level of social integration in society.

3) Social System and Culture

Hypotheses are constructed based on separate beliefs, attitudes, conditions, traditions, methods, and processes that can exist within the social system. Every process in society follows a set of norms, rules, and norms. This is researched in various aspects. For example, the caste system in the Hindu society, the development of the industrial society in western society and its impact on the life of the people, the growing self-centered thinking in western society, etc. are the sources of self-imagination.

4) Findings of Research and Continuity of Research

The series of social researches are in themselves important sources of hypotheses. For example, some research findings are considered sources of hypotheses, while in some cases, hypotheses are rejected and repeated research helps to form real hypotheses.

5) Observation

In some cases, hypotheses are made on the basis of events happening in society, social behavior, relationships, etc. Observations of the behavior of the son and daughter at home by their parents, various festivals, references to how society celebrates the culture, the relationship between the student and the teacher in the college, etc. also help to raise the hypothesis.

6) Analogy

The same phenomena, behavioral beliefs, and activities that can and do occur in a society become sources of hypothesis when it comes to studying another society. The same kind of environment and the same kind of socio-cultural conditions can show the same kind of consequences. It can be concluded that the effects of the capitalist economy can be felt equally in almost all societies or in all underdeveloped societies. Based on which hypotheses can be developed.

7) Related Literature

In the context of social research, the study of related report articles, critiques, comments, statistics, etc., also helps in constructing hypotheses.

8) Expert’s Opinion

The experience, knowledge, suggestions, advice, etc. of the experts of the related subject also become a source of hypothesis for the second researcher.

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